Why (noun.)

Definition: The reason or explanation for something.

Also referenced as:

Related to: Agreement, Frame, Goal, How, Intent, Purpose, What



The word why was used 29 times across 12 pages


Chapter 1: Identify the Mess | Page 14

Data is facts, observations, and questions about something. Content can be cookies, words, documents, images, videos, or whatever you're arranging or sequencing.

The difference between information, data, and content is tricky, but the important point is that the absence of content or data can be just as informing as the presence.

For example, if we ask two people why there is an empty spot on a grocery store shelf, one person might interpret the spot to mean that a product is sold-out, and the other might interpret it as being popular.

The jars, the jam, the price tags, and the shelf are the content. The detailed observations each person makes about these things are data. What each person encountering that shelf believes to be true about the empty spot is the information.



Chapter 1: Identify the Mess | Page 16

User is another word for a person. But when we use that word to describe someone else, we're likely implying that they're using the thing we're making. It could be a website, a product or service, a grocery store, a museum exhibit, or anything else people interact with.

When it comes to our use and interpretation of things, people are complex creatures.

We're full of contradictions. We're known to exhibit strange behaviors. From how we use mobile phones to how we traverse grocery stores, none of us are exactly the same. We don't know why we do what we do. We don't really know why we like what we like, but we do know it when we see it. We're fickle.

We expect things to be digital, but also, in many cases, physical. We want things to feel auto-magic while retaining a human touch. We want to be safe, but not spied on. We use words at our whim.

Most importantly perhaps, we realize that for the first time ever, we have easy access to other people's experiences to help us decide if something is worth experiencing at all.



Chapter 1: Identify the Mess | Page 20

This chapter outlines why it's important to identify the edges and depths of a mess, so you can lessen your anxiety and make progress.

I also introduced the need to look further than what is true, and pay attention to how users and stakeholders interpretlanguage, data, and content.

To start to identify the mess you're facing, work through these questions:



Chapter 2: State your Intent | Page 23

Language is any system of communication that exists to establish shared meaning. Even within a single language, one term can mean something in situation A and something different in situation B. We call this a homograph. For example, the word pool can mean a swimming pool, shooting pool, or a betting pool.

Perception is the process of considering, and interpreting something. Perception is subjective like truth is. Something that's beautiful to one person may be an eyesore to another. For example, many designers would describe the busy, colorful patterns in the carpets of Las Vegas as gaudy. People who frequent casinos often describe them as beautiful.

However good or bad these carpet choices seem to us, there are reasons why they look that way. Las Vegas carpets are busy and colorful to disguise spills and wear and tear from foot traffic. Gamblers likely enjoy how they look because of an association with an activity that they enjoy. For Las Vegas casino owners and their customers, those carpet designs are good. For designers, they're bad. Neither side is right. Both sides have an opinion.

What we intend to do determines how we define words like good and bad.



Chapter 2: State your Intent | Page 28

Understanding the why behind what you're making allows you to uncover your intent and potential.

When everyone knows why they're doing something, the way forward is clearer and each person can understand their individual responsibilities.

Having a strong why will get you further. Having a weak why won't make it any easier to get up in the morning. Your why should be part of everything you do, not just your mission statement.

Why? Because without a clear reason for doing something, even the most committed and loyal person will eventually abandon the hope of finishing the task.

To start with why, ask yourself:

  • Why does this work need to be done?
  • Why is change needed? Why do those changes matter? Why should other people care?
  • Why hasn't this been tackled correctly?
  • Why will this time be different?


Chapter 2: State your Intent | Page 30

The saying "there are many ways to skin a cat" reminds us that we have options when it comes to achieving our intent. There are many ways to do just about anything

Whether you're working on a museum exhibit, a news article, or a grocery store, you should explore all of your options before choosing a direction.

How is an ever-growing list of directions we could take while staying true to our reasons why.

To look at your options, ask yourself:



Chapter 2: State your Intent | Page 31

Our why, what, and how aren't always determined in a linear process. The answers to these fundamental questions may change from moment to moment.

Your why may be "because you want this checked off your to-do list" or "because you want to play with certain materials or ideas."

Your resulting what might be to "start making the first thing that comes to mind."

They may not be lofty in intent, but the intent has been stated. These are valid answers to why and what that will serve as a guide for how you define what is good. Your actions will be the result of your answers.

How long would you spend on a task without understanding why it's important or what you are actually accomplishing? Constantly answering these basic questions are a big part of our everyday life.



Chapter 4: Choose a Direction | Page 63

After you face reality, it still takes a tremendous amount of work and courage to move from understanding why something needs to change to knowing what you can do about it.

There are many directions to choose from. Each has its own twists and turns.

People often get in their own way by becoming overwhelmed with choices, choosing not to choose instead. Others are limited by frustration over things they can't change immediately or easily.

Change takes time.

Start by choosing a direction to go toward. If you take one step in that direction each day, you'll get to the finish line in due time.

If you spend all your time thinking about how far the finish line is and fearing never getting there, you'll make slower progress or never make it at all.



Chapter 4: Choose a Direction | Page 73

It's important to discuss and vet your ontological decisions with stakeholders and users. Talking about language choices gives you a chance to test them.

It may sound obvious, but it's quite common to think something is clearly defined before talking about it with other people.

A good starting point in exploring ontology is to bring everyone together to make a list of terms and concepts. Ask each person to share:

Go through each term as a group and use this as a forum for educating each other on what you know about language and context. Don't "uh huh" your way through words you've never heard or don't understand. Instead, untangle acronyms and unfamiliar phrases.

If someone uses a different word than you do, ask for clarification. Why do they use that word? Get them to explain it. Complexity tends to hide in minutiae.



Chapter 4: Choose a Direction | Page 76

I've avoided using these terms and concepts:

  1. Doing/Do the IA (commonly misstated)
  2. IA (as an abbreviation)
  3. Information Architecture (as a proper noun)
  4. Information Architect (exceptions in my dedication and bio pages)
  5. App as an abbreviation (too trendy)
  6. Very (the laziest word ever)
  7. User experience (too specific to design)
  8. Metadata (too technical)
  9. Semantic (too academic)
  10. Semiotic (too academic)

I have reasons why these words aren't good in the context of this book. That doesn't mean I never use them; I do in some contexts.



Chapter 7: Prepare to Adjust | Page 119

We need to understand the sum of a lot of pieces to make sense of what we have.

For example, let's say we're working on bringing a product to the market. To support this process, we might create:

These are all important pieces individually, but we need to look at them together to answer questions about the whole such as:



Chapter 7: Prepare to Adjust | Page 130

  1. Have you explored the depth and edges of the mess that you face?
  2. Do you know why you have the intent you have and what it means to how you will solve your problem?
  3. Have you faced reality and thought about contexts and channels your users could be in?
  4. What language have you chosen to use to clarify your direction?
  5. What specific goals and baselines will you measure your progress against?
  6. Have you put together various structures and tested them to make sure your intended message comes through to users?
  7. Are you prepared to adjust?